Difference between revisions of "Standard Writing Guidelines"

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Depending on where you are sharing your work, the appropriate writing style can vary greatly.  With this is mind, it is a good idea to carefully read the other works presented at the venue, and ensure your tone is appropriate.  The following advice, however, generally holds true.
 
Depending on where you are sharing your work, the appropriate writing style can vary greatly.  With this is mind, it is a good idea to carefully read the other works presented at the venue, and ensure your tone is appropriate.  The following advice, however, generally holds true.
  
==Avoid business lingo==
+
==Use clear language==
  
Try to avoid language that sounds like it was written by a marketer or bureaucratThis sort of language is not typically used in academia, and its use may make others think that you are trying to hide something.
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Writing is meant to be understood, so it is a good idea to make writing as clear as possibleDon't try to make writing fancier by using obscure synonyms of common words.  Some journal authors<ref name="psych-published">[http://pb.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/2/6/112 The Psychiatrist: How to Get Your Paper Published]</ref> say that a paper is not a good paper unless it is as clear as it can be.
 
 
==Use clear language==
 
  
Writing is meant to be understood, so it is a good idea to make writing as clear as possibleDon't try to make writing fancier by using obscure synonyms of common words.
+
Similarly, avoid needlessly fancy words.<ref name="strunkandwhite">Strunk and White. <i>The Elements of Style, fourth edition</i></ref> More complicated words might make your writing feel more sophisticated, but it is in opposition to the primary goal of writing: to communicate ideasAdditionally, using words that have a business or marketing flavor might make some readers question whether you are trying to make your work sound better than it is, and could make them less receptive to your ideas.
  
==Avoid needless synonyms==
+
==Be self-consistent==
  
Use the same term for the same thing in whatever you're writing.  Do not refer to something as a "technique" in one sentence and an "approach" in the nextDoing so can cause confusion, or at the very least make it less clear what you are referring to.
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What you are writing is a single work, and so it should agree with itself.  Use the same term for the same thing throughout your writing.  If your introduction lists three topics you will be discussing, discuss them in the same order in the body of your paperBy being consistent, you are making it easier for the reader to understand and navigate what you've written, which makes it easier for your writing to fulfill its goals.
  
 
==Use active voice (when possible)==
 
==Use active voice (when possible)==

Revision as of 10:04, August 2, 2010


Some guidelines apply to virtually all English writing. The following guidelines should generally be followed for all pieces of writing.

Use proper English

Readers will judge your writing both on its meaning and on its mechanics. If you have great meaning but poor spelling or grammar, your work will be less well received.

Proper English means several things.

Have correct spelling

Spelling mistakes are some of the easiest mistakes to avoid in writing. Most programs support automatic spell-checking, and there are other tools for spell-checking text files.

Additionally, avoid misspellings that computers can't detect. For instance, the following sentence is correctly spelled.

Ho ware you doing?

Even though all the words in that sentence are spelled correctly, it is not correct. Look for errors such as these.

Have correct grammar

Having correct grammar is vital for communicating effectively. Incorrect grammar can sometimes make it very difficult to understand what you are trying to say. A full discussion of English grammar is beyond the scope of this wiki, but there are many books which address this topic.

Watch for common problems

Many expressions used in casual conversational English are invalid or improper in a formal setting.

there/their/they're

All of these words have different meanings. Their correct uses are as follows:

  • there refers to a location.
  • their means "belonging to them"
  • they're stands for "they are"

You can find a more thorough discussion at [1]

its/it's

These two forms of its have quite different meanings. The correct usage is

  • its means "belonging to it"
  • it's means "it is"

than/then

An object can be larger than another object, and if this is the case, then something else is true.

infer/imply

Infer and imply have complementary meanings. To infer means to logically deduce from indirect evidence, while to imply means to suggest something indirectly. Mixing these up will quite possibly cause people to misunderstand you.

e.g. and i.e.

These abbreviations come from Latin. I.e. stands for id est which means "That is." E.g. stands for exempli gratia which means "For example." Be careful not to mix these up.[2]

And more

Many other words are commonly misused. Looking at the list on wikipedia should help you avoid these mistakes.

Edit well

You should always edit your writing until you are satisfied with it and are unable to think of ways to improve it. You should have colleagues and friends read what you have written and look for mistakes. Frequently, a new set of eyes is able to find mistakes the original writer is blind to.

Use appropriate style

Depending on where you are sharing your work, the appropriate writing style can vary greatly. With this is mind, it is a good idea to carefully read the other works presented at the venue, and ensure your tone is appropriate. The following advice, however, generally holds true.

Use clear language

Writing is meant to be understood, so it is a good idea to make writing as clear as possible. Don't try to make writing fancier by using obscure synonyms of common words. Some journal authors[3] say that a paper is not a good paper unless it is as clear as it can be.

Similarly, avoid needlessly fancy words.[4] More complicated words might make your writing feel more sophisticated, but it is in opposition to the primary goal of writing: to communicate ideas. Additionally, using words that have a business or marketing flavor might make some readers question whether you are trying to make your work sound better than it is, and could make them less receptive to your ideas.

Be self-consistent

What you are writing is a single work, and so it should agree with itself. Use the same term for the same thing throughout your writing. If your introduction lists three topics you will be discussing, discuss them in the same order in the body of your paper. By being consistent, you are making it easier for the reader to understand and navigate what you've written, which makes it easier for your writing to fulfill its goals.

Use active voice (when possible)

The active voice (as opposed to the passive voice) should be used whenever possible. Using active phrasing makes sentences stronger, clearer, and shorter. Sentences can be easier to understand when in the active voice.

However, some authors prefer, in academic writing, to avoid using first- or second-person pronouns. In this case, passive construction is essential. Before writing, you should decide which choice to make.

References

<references>
  1. How to Use There, Their and They're
  2. wikiHow: How to use "i.e." Versus "e.g."
  3. The Psychiatrist: How to Get Your Paper Published
  4. Strunk and White. The Elements of Style, fourth edition